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Knowledge Centre


Welcome to the Glossary

(Key) A-Austria, F-France, G-Germany, H-Hungary, I-Italy, P-Portugal, S-Spain
CH-Chile, AR-Argentina


Coming soon:

Wine Label terms, 

Champagne Bottle sizes, Tasting Terms & Australian Regions

abv - Alcohol by volume. % of alcohol in container, measured at 20˚C

AOC / AC (F) - Appellation d'Origine Controlee / Appellation Controlee, a term to signify a wine regions' geographical boundaries and their rules

Acetic Acid - A volatile acid in all wine. If high levels than this is a wine fault. Vinegary smell and taste to wine

Acidity - Naturally occurring component of every grape, tartaric acid and malic acid are the most important. Acidity help preserve the wine and gives a wine freshness

Aerobic - Needing oxygen to survive or function

Alcohol - Ethanol / Ethyl alcohol resulting from the fermentation process, where yeast convert grape sugars into alcohol

Alcoholic Fermentation - The process of yeast converting sugar into alcohol. Also producing CO2, flavour compounds & heat

Anbaugebiet (G) - Quality wine region in Germany (13 regions)

Annata (I) - Vintage

Aroma - A subjective term used to describe a wine, when a released compound in the wine identifies itself as a common item, e.g. Rose, Cherry, Cedar, Smoke, Grass, Forrest floor etc

Aspersion (sprinkler) - The process of sprinkling water onto vines, which then freezes and protects against frosts

Assemblage (F) - Blending of parcel of wines before bottling

Astringency - The amount of drying of the palate, mainly from unripe tannins and fruit

Ausbruch (A) - Prädikat Quality classification. Literally "Break Out" - Sweetness level. Grape measured for potential alcohol level at harvest time in Austria. 3rd sweetest level

Auslese (A/G) - Prädikat Quality classification. Literally "Special Selection/Harvest" - Sweetness level. Grape measured for potential alcohol level at harvest time in Austria/Germany. 2nd sweetest level in Austria and 3rd sweetest level in German


BLICE - Balance, Length, Intensity, Complexity & Expression, individual components used to help give a final conclusion for the quality of a wine in a wine critic

Balance - A subjective term used to describe a wine's quality, the amounts of perceived sweetness, acidity, tannins, alcohol, fruit intensity and other factors such as oak and MLC

Balthazar - 12L bottle (16 bottles of 750mL) used for Champagne

Barrel - A Cask for holding liquid. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of 119 litres (in UK), wine barrels are usually made from Oak from Europe or America. Bordeaux barrels hold 225L (barrique) and Burgundy 228L (piece). European oak due to it's more porous behavior is usually split along it's grain whereas American oak can be sawn.

Barrel Fermentation - Normally only white wine is fermented in an oak barrels (as no skins/pips), giving a more complex, rich and creamy flavours and a longer finish

Barrique (F) - A 225L  cask/barrel traditionally used in Bordeaux. 225L equals 25 cases (12 bottles of 750mL)


Bâtonnage (F) - The stirring of the lees in a barrel to impart extra texture and flavours

Baumé (F) - Scale used to measure Must weight

Beerenauslese (A/G) - Prädikat Quality classification. Literally Berries Special Selection/Harvest - Sweetness level. Grape measured for potential alcohol level at harvest time in Austria/Germany. 3rd sweetest level in Austria and 4th sweetest level in German. (sometimes affected by Botrytis Cinerea)

Bentonite - A Fining agent from volcanic clay

Bereich (A/G) - A collection of villages (district)

Biodynamic - Organic farming and well as using phases of the moon to determine dates for various procedures such as pruning and harvesting. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925)

Biologique - Organic farming 

Blend - Two or more grape varieties are fermentation separately and then blended together

Blind Tasting - Tasting and critic of a wine without knowing what it is or where it is from

Bodega (S) - Winery

Body - The feeling of weight on the palate. Light like skimmed milk, medium like semi-skimmed milk, and full like full-fat milk

Botrytis Cinerea - (Noble Rot) A desirable fungus that causes a grapes to lose some water by evaporation, thus concentrating the sugars, acids and flavours. The fungus also gives flavour of honey, orange peel and dried fruit

Bottling - To put wine in bottles for sale or for further aging

Bouquet (F) - The accumulation of all the wine's aromas

Brett or Brettanomyces - A type of wild yeast commonly found on fruit and in wineries and breweries giving horse or band-aid aromas. In high dosages is classified as a wine fault


Brix - A scale used to measure the level of sugar (sucrose) in grapes in degrees. This value can be used to give the potential alcohol % of a wine

Brut (F) - A term translating to "raw", "unrefined" or "natural", used to describe the driest sparkling wine, 0-12 g/L of sugar (sub-divided into 3 ranges, Brut Nature, Extra-Brut and Brut)

Bush Vine - Vines are free-standing with no support from a trellis

Butt (S) - A 600L cask used for holding Sherry


Butt - A 477L wine cask

Buttage (F) - Moving earth to cover a vine graft to protect it from frost damage



Cage - Wire around a sparkling wine bottle's neck securing the cork in place


Cane Pruning - A one year old branches of a vine that has been winter pruned to support the fruit for the next vintage (6-8 buds)

Canopy Management - Making sure the vine canopy is optimum in terms of corrects amounts of light, heat and air flow, to enable ripe healthy grapes and avoid vine diseases

Cap - Grape solids including skins, pulp, pips and stems that rise to the top of a tank during fermentation of red wine

Carbonic Maceration (F) - The fermentation of whole bunches of red grapes without crushing in a carbon dioxide environment. Producing light, fruity wines with low tannins (Beaujolais)

Cask (wine) - A wooden vessel for fermenting, maturing and holding wine, usually made from oak

Casta (P) - Grape variety

Cava (S) - Sparkling wine made in a number of Spanish regions using the Traditional Method

Cave (F) - Cellar / Winery

Cépage (F) - Grape variety

Chai (F) - Wine storage room

Champagne (F) - Wine region in France where Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, or Pinot Meunier grapes are made into sparkling wine using the Méthode Champenoise

Chaptalisation (F) - A form of Must Enrichment. The addition of sucrose to the grape Must to fuel the yeast in order to increase alcohol content

Charmat Method (F) - a.k.a. Tank Method - sparkling wine production method using steel tanks

Château (F) - Estate or Grand house mainly in Bordeaux

Clarification - A  process using fining and/or filtration of wine to remove suspended solids and reduce haziness

Classico (I) - Label term denoting an original area of an Italian DOC region, giving the most typical wines of the region

Climate (F) - A named vineyard fixed in AOC Regulations (larger than Lieu-dit)

Clone - A man-made replica of a vine (not by nature)

Clos (F) - An originally walled vineyard

Colhelta (P) - Harvest

Colour - During a wine critic, a wine's colour can be used to determine a wine's age


Commune (F) - A village with its surrounding vineyards 


Conclusion - Final part of wine critic, where a final judgement on quality, grape, region (and producer) is made


Continentality - The difference between summer and winter-time temperatures


Cordon Training - Permanent parts of a vine extended horizontally from the trunk, where Spur pruning is usually performed

Corked wine - A wine tainted by the chemical compound Trichloroanisole (TCA), resulting in a musky/damp cardboard smell that effects the quality and enjoyment of the wine

Côte (F) - Hills

Coteau (F) - Slopes

Crémant (F) - A sparkling wine made in France, but outside of the Champagne region using  Méthode Champenoise 

Cross (-ing) - Creating a new grape variety by the cross-pollination of two different varieties from the same species of vitis vinifera vines

Cru (F) - Translates to "Growth" in English and is used in the French wine classification systems (Grand Cru, Premiere Cru, Grand Cru classé)

Crush - The process of gently breaking the grape's skin to release the free-run juice or amount of grapes used in a harvest year

Cryoextraction - Similar to the production of Icewine, but processed in the winery by freezing the grapes in a freezing unit and then pressing the grapes releasing the concentrated juice, whilst the frozen water elements remains in the press

Cuvaison (F) - The time during fermentation when the wine is in contact with the solid matter such as skins, seeds and stalks. This stage extracts colour, flavour and tannin

Cuve Close - Another name for Tank Method

Cuvée (F) - A blend of wines or the juice from the first pressing of Champagne grapes



DAC (A) - Districtus Austriae Controllatus. Wine classification system used in 16 Austrian regions. Similar to AOC / DOC classifications in France and Italy

DO (S) - Denominación de Origen. Spanish term to denote a PDO wine regions' geographical boundaries and their rules

DOC (I) - Denominazione di Origine Controllata. Italian term to denote a PDO wine regions' geographical boundaries and their rules

DOCa / DOQ (S) - Denominación de Origen Calificada. Spanish term to denote the best PDO wine regions' geographical boundaries and their rules. Currently Rioja DOCa and Priorat DOQ (DOQ used in Catalan)

DOCG (I) - Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita. Italian term to denote the best PDO wine regions' geographical boundaries and their rules

Decanting - The process of transferring wine from the bottle to a decanter, thus aerating a young wine. Also used to help separate a wine from its sediment

Dégorgement (F) - Disgorgement. A sparkling wine process used to remove the frozen portion of the wine containing the dead yeast cells (Lees)

Diurnal Range - The difference between day and night-time temperatures

Domaine (F) - Estate

Dosage (F) - Also called Liqueur d'expedition. A  wine and cane sugar mixture added after disgorgement to balance the acidity in a sparking wine before sale

Dry - A wine containing no more than 9 g/L of unfermented sugar (RS)



Edelfäule (A/G) - Noble Rot

Einzellage (G) - A single vineyard

Eiswein (A/G) - Prädikat Quality classification. A sweet wine, where the grapes are frozen (naturally or artificially) and then crushed and the frozen water particles are removed, thus concentrating the acids, sugars and flavours. Must NOT be affected by Botrytis Cinerea

En Primeur (F) - A term (especially Bordeaux) for wine sold while still aging in the barrels of the producer. Basically Wine Futures market


Erste Lage (G) - A "Premiere Cru" level quality vineyard of who is a member of the German growers association (VDP)


Erstes Gewächs (G) - A traditional term in the Rheingau used instead of Grosses Gewächs


Erzeugerabfüllung (G) - Estate bottled


Estate - A wine maker who uses only their own grapes


Estufagem (P) - A process of heating a wine to speed up the maturation. Used for Madeira wine


Ethanol - Alcohol or Ether alcohol


Extraction - Prolonged Cuvaison, results in high extraction giving more body, tannin, colour and flavours from the grape skins



Fermentation - See Alcoholic Fermentation


Filtration - The clarification of wine before bottling to remove any particles (visible and solidified)


Fining - Clarifying the wine to remove suspended particles with the aid of oppositely charged particles and then gravity. E.g. Bentonite and animal product


Flor (S) - Yeast formed on top of maturing Fino, Manzanilla and Amontillado (part) sherries to protect them from oxidation and to give flavour


Fortified Wine - A wine in which grape spirit has been added to kill any yeast in the solution during fermentation to product a sweet fortified wine (Port) or added after fermentation has finished to product dry fortified wine (Sherry)


Frattoria (I) - Estate


Free-run juice - Juice extracted from grapes mainly during grape crushing before being pressed



GI - Geographical Indication - A  World Trade Organisation term describing a place of defined boundaries where produce is made under certain laws or traditions


Gemeinde (A/G) - A self-governing town or village with its surrounding vineyards 


Gönc (H) - The traditional cask used for maturing Tokaji


Governo (I) - A small quantity of dried grapes or concentrated grape juice is added to the wine after fermentation to increase its sweetness and frizzante. Can also be used to help a stuck fermentation to restart it by giving more food source to the yeast


Grafting - A grapevine head or shoot is spliced/affixed onto an existing grapevine root or branch


Green Harvest - The removal of unripe grapes from grapevines in the early stages of grape ripening, to reduce yields and in an attempt to increase the quality


Grosses Gewächs (G) - A "Grand Cru" level quality vineyard. A dry wine made by a member of the German VDP association from a quality vineyard


Grosslage (G) - A larger group of connected vineyards (not single vineyard)



ha - Hectare is a unit of surface area used for vineyards, equal to 10,000 square metres

hL - Hectoliter is a unit of volume used for wines, equal to 100 litres


Habillage (F) - The dressing used on a sparkling wine bottle (e.g. foil)


Herbaceousness - An aroma or flavour similar to green; often an indication of under-ripe grapes, fruit grown in a cool climate or some grape varieties

Hybrid - Creating a new grape variety by the cross-pollination of two different varieties from different species of vitis vines



IGP (F) - Indication Géographique Protégée. A French traditional term for PGI. A quality classification between AOC and VDT

IGT (I) - Indicazione Geografica Tipica - Italian PGI classification. An Italian traditional quality classification below DOC

Icewine - Same process as the German/Austrian Eiswein, usually made in Canada from the Vidal hybrid grape

Imperial (F) - 6L (8 bottles of 750mL) used for Champagne



Jeroboam - 4.5L (6 bottles of 750mL) used for Champagne



KMW (A) - Klosterneuburger Mostwaage. See Must Weight

Kabinett (A) - An term for dry wine in their Quality Wine classification QbA

Kabinett (G) - A term for the driest of the wines in their Prädikat Quality classification QmP

Kieselguhr (G) - A siliceous sedimentary rock that when ground into a fine powder can be used to filter wine



Lagar (P) - shallow vessel used for treading grapes, usually for Port Wine

Late Degorgement - Champagne that has been aged on its lies for a long time before being disgorged and released

Late Harvest - A term used to describe a wines made from riper grapes that have been left on the vines for a longer period before harvest. Wine may be sweeter, but not necessary so

Leaf Stripping - Remove of leaves from the grapevine to enable more sunlight to reach the grapes


Lees - Sediment left in the barrel or bottle by fermenting wines; a combination of spent yeast cells, seeds, stalks and grape solids, can be large (grosse lees) or fine lees


Lees Stirring - The mixing-up of the lees with the wine, used to add complexity and yeast flavours to wine


Legs (or tears) - Forms when alcohol evaporates from wine on the side of the glass. If thick slow moving legs/tears, this could indicate high abv% or sugar content. If tears are stained by a red wine, then this could indicate high Extraction


Lieu-dit (F) - A named piece of land/vineyard that is registered in the local Centralised Land Registry (smaller than Climate)

Liqueur de tirage (F) - A mixture of sugar, yeast, nutrients and wine added to still wine in order to promote a second fermentation to make sparkling wine 


Liqueur d'expedition (F) - Also known as Dosage, a mixture of sugar and wine added to sparkling wine to define it's sweetness level (e.g. Brut, Extra-Sec, Demi-Sec, Doux)


Liquoreux (F) - Very sweet wine


Liquoroso (I) - Mainly Italian fortified wine

Loam Soil - Mixture of Clay, Sand & Silt. Best soils for grape growing.


Löß or Loess Soil (G) - Wind-blown dust, consisting of sand and silt with some clay



MOG - Matter Other-then Grape, including leaves, stalks and other things in the grape containers


Maceration - The time where grape skins and juice are kept together imparting colour, tannin, and flavour


Macro-climate - The climate of a wine region or sub-region


Madeira - Fortified wine made on the island of Madeira. The wine is fortified (like Port), but then heated (above 30C) for a period of time before aging in a cooler environment


Maderised - Stemming from the word Madeira, this term means oxidisation in a hot environment


Magnum - 1.5L. A bottle twice the size of a regular 750 ml bottle


Malolactic Fermentation (MLF) - A conversion of Malic acid to Latic acid. Most reds and some whites goes through this process, which gives a fuller mouthfeel and diary notes


Marc Brandy (F) - Brandy made from distilling the pomace

Mas (F) - Vineyard


Maso/Masseria (I) - Estate


Medal (20 point system)Gold, Silver or Bronze for quality. Bronze (>=15.5 & <17.0 points); Silver (>=17.0 & <18.5 points); Gold (>= 18.5 points). Scored on appearance, nose, palate and conclusion


Meso-Climate - The climate within a vineyard or small area


Méthode Champenoise (F) - See Traditional Method

Methuselah - 6L (8 bottles of 750mL) used for Champagne


Micro-Climate - The climate within or above a small group of grapevines


Millésime (F) - Vintage


Mise en bouteille (F) - Bottled (by)


Mistela (S) - A VDL (Vin de Liqueur)


Mistelle (F) - A VDL (Vin de Liqueur)


Monopole (F) - A vineyard with a single owner (Burgundy)


Must - Grape juice, skins, pulp, seeds and sometime stems. The solid portion of the must is called Pomace


Must Enrichment - See Chaptalisation


Must Weight - Sugar concentration in grapes, to predict alcohol %, if a dry wine is made



Negociant (F) - A term for a company that buys wines and re-labels it with their own name (Merchant)


Noble Rot - See Botrytis Cinerea


Non-filtré (F) - Unfiltered


Nose - A tasting term used to describe a wines intensity and aroma characteristics



Oak - Wood used for adding flavours and texture to wine 


Öchsle (G) - See Must Weight


Old Vines - Grapevines with age that produce low yielding quality grapes

Organic/Organically grown grapes - Grapes grown without the aid of chemical-based fertilisers, pesticides, or herbicides


Oxidised - A wine that is no longer fresh because it was exposed to too much air



pH - An indication of a wine's acidity expressed by how many hydrogen atoms are present, therefore a measure of the strength of the acid


PDO - Protected Designation of Origin. European term for top quality wine with a Geographical Indication (GI)


PGI - Protected Designation of Origin. European term for top quality wine with a Geographical Indication (GI)


Palate - The mouth feel, flavours and other structural components identified when the wine is in the mouth


Passérillée (F) - Grapes that have started to dry-up on the vine or dried after harvest


Pétillant (F) - Slightly sparkling


Photosynthesis - Process of sugar creation in vines from carbon dioxide, water and sunlight


Phylloxera (G) - A louse origination from the USA, which is the main cause of death to European origin vines 


Pigeage (F) - See Punching Down


Pipe (P) - Traditional 550L cask used for Port storage


Pomace or Marc (F) - The solid portion of the Must. Skins, seeds and stems. After fermentation the pomace is sometimes used to make a grape spirit such as Grappa and Marc brandy


Port (P) - A Fortified wine in the Douro region in Portugal. Made by adding grape spirit to the fermenting juice in order to stop the fermentation prematurely resulting in a strong sweet wine


Pourriture Noble (F) - Noble Rot

Prädikatwein (A/G) - Qualitätswein mit Prädikat (QmP), a superior quality wine level, where categories are classification by potential sweetness levels. Austria and Germany have different classifications


Premier Cru (F) - French for 'first growth;' a high-quality vineyard but one not as good as Grand Cru.


Preservative Free - No added preservatives have been added by the wine maker. Note natural preservatives may be present due to the fermentation process


Press - The process by which pressed grape juice is extracted prior to fermentation for white wine and after fermentation for red wine. Also the name of the device that extracts the juice


Primary Aromas - Aromas deriving from the fruit (grapes)


Produttore (I) - Producer


Pumping Over - The action of pumping the juice from the bottom of the fermentation vessel over the Cap at the top, aids colour extraction, oxygenation and temperature control

Punching Down - The action of punching down the Cap that forms during fermentation, thus moisening  the cap and therefore avoide reductive notes


Pupitre (F) - A-Frame or rack used for holding Champagne bottled during remuage


Puttonyos (H) - A system to classify the sweetness of Tokaji wines



QbA (A/G) - Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete - "Quality wine from certain growing areas". Wine from one of the quality wine growing areas. This level is below QmP, and Chaptalisation may be used

QmP (A/G) - Qualitätswein mit Prädikat - "Quality wine with specific attributes". The highest quality level. See Prädikatwein

QWPSR - Quality Wine Produced in a Specified Region. Term used in Europe before 2009. Now PDO


Quality - The quality of a wine is usually given as a score out of 20 (or 100)


Quinta (P) - Estate



RS - Residual Sugar. The amount of sucrose left in a wine are fermentation, expressed in g/L


Rack-and-Return - The process of Racking, removing the sediment and then Returning the juice to the same vessel


Racking - The process of moving clear wine from one vessel to another vessel to separate it from its sediment


Raisin (F) - Grape


Récolte (F) - Harvest


Refractometer - Device used to measure the Must weight of the juice in the grapes


Remontage (F) - See Pumping over


Remuage (F) - See Riddling


Reserva (S) - A Spanish term for a red wine that has spent at least three years in barrels and bottles before



Reserve (CH/AR) - No legal meaning, but sometimes used by producers for aged or special wines


Residual Sugar - The amount of unfermented sugars left in the wine measured in g/L


Reverse Osmosis - Technique used to separate components of a substance. Can be used to reduce water or alcohol in wine


Riddling - A slow process of gradually moving sediment to the neck of the bottle by slowly moving the angle of the bottle to a vertical position, as used in the sparkling wine process


Rootstock - The root system of the vine (where other vine species can be head-grafted onto different rootstock). With the louse Phylloxera, American rootstock is commonly used throughout the world which is resistant to the louse.


Rosé (F) - French for "pink", made from mainly red grapes with a short time spent in contact with the skins, to give a paler and lighter flavoured refreshing wine



Saccharomyces Cerevisiae - A favourable yeast strain naturally on the grape skin (in small amounts) that would ferment the grape juice to provide wanted wine aromas. This yeast strain is also resistant to high alcohol and sulphur dioxide. Also added in a cultured form, if wild ferment is not wanted 


Scion - A part of the vine grafted on to the rootstock


Secondary Aromas - Aromas deriving from wine-making (such as oak or MLF)


Sediment - Partials forced to the bottom of a holding vessel by gravity, including barrels, tanks and bottles


Sherry - A fortified wine from Spain. Sherry can be either biologically or oxidatively matured or both. Sherry types are named Fino, Manzanilla, Oloroso, Amontillado or PX


Solera - The final level of the Solera System where the Sherry is bottled from


Solera System - The maturation system for sherry. Fractional blending of wines from different barrels and ages to give a consistent end product

Sommelier - A person with advanced wine and producer knowledge that advises restaurant customers about wines and food pairings

Spatlese (A/G) - Prädikat Quality classification. Literally Late Selection/Harvest - Sweetness level. Grape measured for potential alcohol level at harvest time in Austria/Germany. 2nd sweetest level in Austria and 3rd sweetest level in German.

Split - A quarter-bottle of wine, equal to 185mL

Spur Pruning - A small branch (spur) growing off a Cordon, which has only a few bubs (3-4)

Soutirage - See Racking

Stem - The part of a wine glass that is held and used to swirl the wine or part of vine


Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) - Additive E220. A gas or powder used as an anti-oxidant and antiseptic. Romans burnt sulphur candles to sterilise wine vessels

Sur Lie - A wine that is matured on its dead yeast cells after fermentation (lees)


Sur Point - Aging of sparkling wine on its neck in contact with the dead yeast (lees)

Suß or Suss (A/G) - German word for sweet


Sußreserve (G) - Unfermented grape juice added to wine before bottling to sweeten the wine


Swirl - The mixture of the wine with air to open-up the wine and release it's aromas



Table Wine - Old term used to describe wines of lower alcohol percent from an area without a GI. Now "Wine of Country"


Tafelwein (A/G) - Table wine


Taille (F) - Pruning or the juice from the second pressing of Champagne grapes


Tank Method - In sparkling wine production where the second fermentation is performed in a tank as opposed to the bottle


Tannin - Phenolic compounds that exist in grapes skins and stems and provide astringent that gives structure to a wine. Some wines need time for the tannins to soften


Tartaric Acid - Acid in a wine detected on the palate and may be permitted as an addition to wine in warmer countries where acidity levels are low


Tenuta (I) - Estate


Terroir (F) - A term used for the combination of soil, climate, and all other factors that influence the ultimate character of a wine from a region


Terterity Aromas - Aromas from bottle or cask aging


Titratable Acidity - Titratable Acidity is a measure of the amount of acid present in a solution. It is expressed as grams/litre (g/L) 


Total Acidity - Generally, total acidity is the measure of tartaric acid in the wine from 0.4% to 1.0%. This figure x10 gives the Titratable Acidity in g/L.


Traditional Method - A term used for the  sparkling wine process where the second fermentation is performed in the bottle that it is sold in


Transfer Method - A term used for the  sparkling wine process where the second fermentation is performed in the bottle, but then its contents transferred to a tank and filtered removing the yeast, then bottled in a different bottle


Trellis - A system to support the vines using posts and wires


Tri (F) - A hand-harvesting technique where individual grapes are only picked when they are ready. Mainly this is used for sweet wine production where Nobel Rot affected grapes are chosen 


Triage (F) - Sorting of grapes after harvest to remove rotten, under-ripe grapes and MOG

Trockenbeerenauslese (A/G) - Prädikat Quality classification. Literally Dried Berries Special Selection - Sweetness level. Grape measured for potential alcohol level at harvest time in Austria/Germany. 5th sweetest level in Austria (sweetest) and 6th sweetest level in German (sweetest). Must be affected by Botrytis Cinerea.



Unfiltered - The wine does not go through any final filtration before bottling and therefore could be hazy in appearance, but the wine could have extra flavour and structural compounds not found in the filtered wine

Uva (I) - Grape

Uvaggio (I) - Blend of grapes



VDF (F) - Vin de France. New French classification term for wine without a GI (used to be called Vin de Table)


VDP (F) - Vin de Pays. Traditional French wine classification term for IGP/PGI quality wines


VDP (G) - Non-legal German classification term for wine from it's best producers/vineyards


VDL (F) - Vin De Liqueur. Brandy added to unfermented grape juice


VDN (F) - Vin Doux Naturels. Brandy added to fermenting grape juice to kill the yeast, thus resulting is a sweet fortified wine, similar to Port


Varietal - A wine mainly made from just one grape variety (subject to local wine laws)


Veijo (I) - Old


Vendange (F) - Grape Harvest


Vendangé à la main (F) - Hand Harvest


Vendange Tardives (F) - Late Harvest


Vendemmia (F) - Vintage


Vendimia (S) - Vintage


Véraison (F) - Changing of the colour and softening of the grapes at the beginning of ripening


Vieilles Vignes (F) - Uncontrolled term used for old-vines


Vigna (I) - Vineyard


Vignoble (F) - Vineyard


Vin (F) - Wine  


Vin de Paille (F) - Wine made from dried grapes


Vin de Table (F) - Table wine


Vin Santo (I) - Sweet wine from Italy made from dried grapes

Viñedo (S) - Vineyard


Vinho (P) - Wine


Vinho de Mesa (P) - Table wine


Viniculture - The science of wine making


Vino da Tavola (I) - Table wine


Vino de Mesa (S) - Table wine


Vintage - The year the grapes was harvested


Vinum Vitae - "Wine Life", the best way to learn about wine


Viticulture - The science of grape growing


Vitigno (I) - Grape variety


Vitis Vinifera (G) - The species of Vitis vines that is most commonly used for wine making grapes


Volatile Acidity (VA) - Acetic acid bacteria, found on grape skins and in the winery, these enzymes oxidise alcohol and produce vinegary smelling acetic acid. Found in all wines, however, in high amounts it is considered a fault


Wild Ferment - Allowing the grape must to be fermented by the wild yeast strains on the grape skins (Bloom) and the surrounding environment


Wine - An alcoholic drink made by the fermentation of (freshly) pressed grapes


Wine Bar - An establishment that sells wine to the public


Wine Critic - The tasting and scoring of a wine's quality


Wine Fault - An unpleasant smell or taste of a wine, either from a flaw with the wine-making process, bad wine storage conditions or incorrect wine service


Winter Pruning - Removal of parts of the vine in order to reduce size and to define new growth areas for the next growing season



Yeast - When used for wine and beer production, it converts saccharide (sugar & starch) to alcohol and flavour compounds, with a by-product of carbon dioxide and heat. See Saccharomyces Cerevisiae


Yeast Autolysis - Dead yeast cell that breakdown and release proteins resulting in biscuity and yeasty flavours into the wine


Yield - The amount of grapes harvested. From a particular year, or from a particular grapevine or vineyard

Regions and laws change often and minor errors excepted - If you see one, please let us know - contents from us and various sources

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